NAME: IJEWEREME PIUS AIGBODION
MAT NO: 2011/3/0006TE
DEPT: Educational Technology
QUESTION 1: Methods of Teaching Science
The methods of teaching science are;
ü Demonstration Method
ü Discovery or Heuristic Method
ü Project Method
ü Problem Solving Method
ü Question and Answering Method
ü Role-Play Method
ü Case-Study Method
ü Direct Teaching Method
ü Collaborative Method
ü Lecture Method
ü Group Discussion Method
1. Lecture Method: This is the oldest method that has been used by the teachers to teach almost all the subjects of the curriculum at all grades and levels. It belongs to the category of autocratic strategy as the teacher plays a virtually the role of a monarch and autocrat, controlling each and every function of the classroom teaching. In simple meaning, this strategy may be defined as a mode or planned scheme devised and employed by the teacher for presenting a segment or unit of the desired content material of a subject to a group of learners through lecturing (verbal communication of ideas) aiming to attain specific teaching-learning objectives related particularly to the cognitive and affective domain of the learners behavior.
Advantages of Lecture Method
· It provides a long rope to the teacher for controlling and monitoring the teaching-learning activities of the classroom by remaining the pivot of the teaching-learning process
· It can help to realize not only the lower cognitive objects like information and development of understanding but also to attain higher cognitive objects like power of analysis, synthesis evaluation, reflective thinking.
· It may provide experiences that inspire and its useful for large groups.
· It is the most effective way to convey teacher spoken information.
Disadvantages of Lecture Methed
· Proficient oral skills are not necessary.
· The audiences are often put under pressure.
· Learning is difficult to determine as the lecture progresses.
· It is not appropriate for all level of learners.
2. Group Discussion Method: This term refers to a discussion by a certain group of learners in the level for a specific instruction. The group discussion as a method of teaching science is defined as some sort of discussion i.e interchanging of ideas between students and teacher or among a group of students resulting into active learning for the realization of the predetermined teaching-learning objectives. This group discussion, in no way, occurs occasionally or incidentally but is planned and organized with deliberate efforts on the parts of the teacher and students for achieving the set goal.
Advantages of Group Discussion
· It ensures active participation by the learners.
· It trains the learners to carry out tasks in groups i.e team work.
· It provides opportunities for the learners to be good listeners and good team leaders.
· It enables the learners to be rational in nature.
Disadvantages of Group Discussion
· It requires proper guidance by the teacher so the learners would not go out of track.
· It may lead to conflict of interest by the learners
· The shy learners would not want to contribute.
· It may be dominated by some set of learners.
3. Projects Method: this is the outcome of the pragmatic ideas propagated by Sir John Dewey. “What is to be taught should have a direct relationship with the actual happenings in life” this central idea forms the basis of project method. The principle of correlation has been given a very practical shape through this strategy as it tries to impart education of all the science subjects in an integrating way by correlating them with the real life activities. In order to understand this strategy, one needs to understand the meaning of project. Project according to Stevenson(1922), is a problematic act carried out in completion in a natural setting. Billard (1936) it is a bit of real life that has been imported into school.
In project method, the project that is to be carried out will be stated by the teacher and its must be related to the instruction t hand. The following steps must be taken into consideration before implementing the project method of teaching science
· Providing a situation
· Choosing and purposing of the topic
· Planning of the project
· Execution of the project
· Evaluation of the project
· Recording of the project.
Advantages of Projects Method
· It is learner centered
· Students work on their own
· There is freedom of working in a social environment
Disadvantages of Projects Method
· It can be expensive in nature
· Learner might be at risk depending on the nature of the project
4. Discovery or Heuristic Method: the term heuristic was derived from the Greek word heurisco meaning to “discover” or “find out”. This method of teaching involves placing the learners as far as possible in the attitude of discover or problem solver, the method involves their finding out instead of being merely told about things. It aims for the development of an attitude of problem olving or discovery among the learners. It wants to make a student an active and independent inquirer and discoverer of knowledge instead of a passive listener and recipient of the knowledge. Instead of getting information students must be engaged in discovering the things or solving the encountered problems with their own independent efforts
Advantages of Discovery or Heuristic Method
· It gives the student confidence
· It provides valuable opportunity for proper development of the cognitive domain of the learners.
· It is learner centered
Disadvantages of Discovery or Heuristic Method
· It requires proper patience
· It cannot cater for a large class properly
· It is very tedious
5. Collaborative Method: this method of teaching establishes a personal connection between students and the topic of study. It allows the students to actively participate in the learning process by talking with each other. It can also be known as team-Based Learning (TBS)
Advantages Collaborative Method
· It helps to foster mutual responsibility.
· It supports research as an effective technique
· Students learn to be patient, less critical and more compassionate.
Disadvantages Collaborative Method
· Students may find it hard to work this way
· The bright students might take control of the class
· Students might not want to share their own knowledge
6. Role-Play Method: this is an excellent technique for building the skills of students. It can be based on the previously scripted scenarios or a real case that may have been presented by the teacher. i.e the student tend to repeat what have been taught to them by the teacher in the class
Advantages Role-Play Method
· It provides opportunity for the students to assume role of others and appreciate another point of view
· It introduces problem situation dramatically
· Allows exploration of solutions
· It provides opportunity to practice skills
Disadvantages Role-Play Method
· Some students may be too self-conscious
· It is not appropriate for large class
· It can be time consuming to setup
QUESTION 2: Lesson Plan in Science
THE MAJOR ITEMS IN A LESSON PLAN
The lesson plan is usually written under some specific sub headings. It is very important for the teacher to know what is to be written under each of the sub-headings of a lesson plan. This are briefly discussed below;
NAME OF TEACHER
The lesson plan of a teacher should always contain their names. This should be boldly written by the teacher In the lesson plan.
NAME OF SCHOOL OF TEACHING (COOPERATING SCHOOL)
The teacher should equally write the name of the school where they are teaching boldly in their lesson plan.
The class the teacher intends to teach at any period of the day should be indicated in the lesson plan. For instance, if it is JSS One or SS Two class it should be written stated in the lesson plan.
The teacher should indicatethe subject he/she intends to teach at any period of the day in the lesson plan.
The teacher should also indicate the topic he/she intends to teach boldly in the lesson plan.
The specific date ,the lesson is to be taught should be indicated in the lesson plan. On no occasion should the teacher alter the date, a lesson is to be taught without a just cause.
TIME OF LESSON
The appropriate time that the lesson is to be taught should be indicated in the lesson plan .for instance 1:00-1:40pm
NUMBER OF PERIOD(S)
The number of period(s) of the lesson should be indicated in the lesson plan e.g double period.
DURATION OF LESSON
The length of the lesson should be stated in the lesson plan .
AVERAGE AGE OF THE LEARNERS
The teacher should indicate in his/her lesson plan he average age of the student in his class e.g (10 years)
The teacher should also write in his/her lesson plan the broad aim or general objectives of the lesson he/she is usually achievable over a long period of time.
This is also referred to as specific objectives.The teacher should always state the behavioral objectives of his/her lesson in a measurable term.it should be achieved within the stated period of time, usually at the end of the lesson.
This is also referred to as a previous knowledge .it is referred to as past experience of the student which are very relevant to the new topic to be taught.
This referred to all instructional media used by the teacher while teaching which may be visual, audio,audio visual or regalia, all of which help the teacher in putting his/her ideas across to the learners in the easiest way of learners could comprehend such ideas without stress.
This means all necessary opening activities which the teacher uses to start his/her lesson.A teacher can introduce his/her topic in form of making reference to the related previous lesson,dramatization. the most important thing is that whatever style a teacher chooses to use shoud be highly stimulating, interesting e.t.c
Development refers to the steps by step procedure which the teacher applies in presenting the ideas he/she wants to impact to the learners.
This is a device the teacher uses to find out whether the stated objectives of the stated objectives or not. It could be inform of oral questioning or written questions given to the learner to provide answers.
The teacher is expected to briefly go over the lesson once again after lesson has been comprehensively taught. This is to clarify some ideas that the learners might have not really understood during the lesson.
This is also refers to as home work. The teacher is expected to give the learner some work to do from their home to either in the previous topic or the present topic or in the new topic to be learnt. The teacher should ensure that he/her marks all the assignment given to the student at any particular time. This will motivate them adequately to do further assignment with high level of seriousness. But if the teacher refuse to mark the assignment given to the learner then the student will not take the other assignment given to them seriously
OUTLINE OF LESSON
NAME OF TEACHER: IJEWEREME PIUS AIGBODION
NAME OF SCHOOL: FEDERAL SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE
SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE
TOPIC: CHANGES IN NON-LIVING THING
PLAN FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL 2
PERIOD: 1 (1.40 -2.20 p.m)
BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to
1. Define Matter
2. State types of changes
3. Mention 3 characteristics of physical and chemical changes
PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: students have been taught “changes in matter”
STEP 1: the teacher explains the concept of changes in matter (non living things)
STEP 11: the teacher gives the types of changes that occurs in matter
STEP 111: the teacher gives the characteristics of non living things
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: ice block, water, soot
Matter undergoes different types of changes. There are two types of changes in non-living things, namely physical and chemical changes.
PHYSICAL CHANGES: these are those changes that occur when matter changes from one state to another and no new substance is being formed. Examples of physical changes are freezing of water, heating a solution.
CHEMICAL CHANGES: these are those changes that occur when matter changes from one state to another and a new substance is produced. Examples of chemical changes are rusting of a nail, burning of wood.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES
Chemical change is the opposite reaction to physical change
No new substance is being formed
New substance is being formed
Heat may not be required
Heating is mostly required
The change is temporary
The change is permanent
The reaction is reversible i.e. the original substance can be recovered
The reaction is not reversible.
PRESENTATION: the teacher presents the lesson by the following step;
INTRODUCTION: the teacher introduces his lesson by asking questions to confirm the level of students’ knowledge of the previous lesson and he introduces his new topic
CLASS ACTIVITY: students and the teacher participated in class discussion.
1. State two changes that occur in non living thing?
2. List three differences between physical and chemical changes.
3. Give two examples of changes in non living things
SUMMARY: the teacher summarizes the lesson by going through the main points of the lesson again
CONCLUSION: the teacher concludes the lesson and gives note of lesson to the students.
ASSIGNMENT: list and explain 2 types of physical changes.