OCHARIVE JOHN ORIROROMENA
SCIENCE TEACHING METHODS
Enthusiasm from the teacher
Teacher enthusiasm for a subject can play a role in students‟ likes or dislikes of a subject and their memory of the subject. Before discussing this enthusiasm, the adults in this study had mixed feelings about their own primary science education with seven specifically claiming they could not remember doing science in primary school, which may have to do with the age of the participants (i.e., six of these respondents were >40 years old). These participants, who could not remember a primary science lesson, responded accordingly, “I can‟t remember, but I‟m sure it was ok - I haven‟t been turned off for life” (Participant 98). Others purported that science was more “embedded into the KLAs [Key Learning Areas]”. One participant stated without any context to the science taught, “Yes, it was interesting and no because it was repetitive” (Participant 39). Conversely, 16 participants acknowledged the teachers‟ enthusiastic nature for teaching science. Those who emphasised teacher enthusiasm highlighted positive experiences in science, while the reverse occurred for those who experienced unenthusiastic teachers.
As science knowledge is socially constructed (e.g., Vygotsky, 1986), group involvement seemed to have an impact on these participants‟ long-term memories. The discovery or investigation of science with peers provided opportunities for social interaction and an element of fun, for instance, Participant 120 wrote,“Experimenting with magnets. It was a fun group activity”. Participant 72 also highlighted her experience of interacting with her peers with the science behind the activity, “Standing on an upside down table on top of balloons and adding more people until the balloons popped. It was the first time I‟d thought about pressure and the spreading of weight to achieve balance”. One participant recognised group experiments in primary science as a foundational experience for secondary work,
Usable and practical science
Usable scientific knowledge was valued by learners, who noted potential practical applications, for example, Participant 27 affirmed, “Learning about the human body, growth and reproduction I always found fascinating and I think helped me understand what makes human beings so similar (scientifically)” [parenthesis included] and Participant 33 stated, “Simple electric circuit - conceptualize the way electricity works and gave an understanding of the delivery of electricity to our home.” Even more difficult science concepts can be presented in practical ways and assist students to remember their learning of science, to illustrate, “Pulleys and levers introduced me to the notions of physics and instilled in me a great interest in the cause and effect of physics” (Participant 130) and “Studying inertia/friction experiment in year 5. Such a complex concept on paper but once we played with ramps and cars it all made sense. This is when I understood the need for practical experience.
The literature frequently highlights the need for hands-on experiences for learning about science concepts. Participants in this study commented on hands-on activities such as “Creating mini-green house inside water bottle [as] exciting and fun” and learning “about different Australian native plants and where they grow best. From this we designed and planted a garden in the school and looked after it for the year” . Whether the hands-on activities are “planting seeds and watching them grow over a period of time” or “making mousetrap cars and racing them in the school” , participants emphasized that “science can be fun” and remembered these as positive experiences. Hands-on science education experiences can have lasting and personal effects on students. For example, (9 years after primary school education) built and shaped a boat from a rectangular block of wood to test its buoyancy, she wrote, “I still own the boat as it‟s special to me and I was proud of my efforts”. It was claimed that hands-on experiences needed to be purposeful with links to scientific knowledge.
Interactivity with life
These adults remembered science activities that had an element of interactivity with life, as illustrated by the following three comments:
Life cycles of chickens - hatching and growing in an incubator in the school classroom. I was fascinated to watch them grow. It was the most interesting bit of science that I could relate to.
The study of the tadpole changing into a frog. My teacher let us each have our own tadpole in a jar, which we fed daily. We had to draw pictures of our tadpole every few days and note any bodily transformations - I was amazed and excited and I felt like I had discovered this phenomenon.
In grade 4 we incubated chicken eggs and watched 4 chicks hatch. We raised the chicks taking them out to play on the school oval everyday.
This experience was a prominent one for me, as we learnt a lot about the life cycle of chickens though real-life experiences.
Real-life interactivity with fauna and/or flora provided stronger focuses for learning, as students appeared genuinely interested in living things. Facilitating learning opportunities where students discover for themselves unique characteristics of living things appeared as a high-impact teaching strategy. This study showed that interactivity with living things can also facilitate life-changing experiences that lead to employment prospects or understandings for sustainable living. For example, Participant 88 stated, “I remember studying the science of plants - I went on to study agriculture/biology at high school and left at end of year 12 - continuing to get a trade certificate on horticulture - nursery. I love plants” and “Growing plants in different environments. I think this (plus the support of my parents) has had a lot to do with my ability to grow veggies and flowers in the garden. It provided a starting point that I‟ve built throughout the years.
Excursions for developing science understandings
Many of these adults had strong memories of their science excursions while attending primary schools. Visits to a planetarium, science centre, and museums provided “enjoyable and great experiences” and showed “how fun (sic) science can be”.
Going to the science museum was very exciting as we learnt a lot about science which motivated me to want to study science. I now believe that hands-on experiences and field trips are an integral part of kids‟ learning about science.
Thoughtfully-organised excursions can provide students with memorable science investigations. There were several adults who remembered camping in bushland to investigate flora and fauna. There were others who remembered exploring the Earth and beyond. and “started looking for and collecting fossils after an excursion to Shorncliffe to study fossils and sedimentation”. Another commented on a “space night” sleepover at school “where we got to look through a telescope at a few planets and the moon and stars. It was the most exciting school experience I have ever had.
Name: Ocharive John oriroromena
Matric : 2011/3/0010TE
Topic:Identificatin of materials
Sub topic:Wood and Metal
Number of periods: 3
Duration of lesson: 40 minutes
Outline of instructional content: *identification of wood * classes of wood * properties s of wood * classes f metals * ferrous, alloy and non ferrous metal.
General objective: At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to (1) state some common uses of wood. (2) identify some properties of metal (3) explain alloy metal
Entry behaviour: Thestudents have alot of material or items made of wood and metals around them even in the classroom.
Instructional material: Realia (wooden table legs, windows and doors in tye classroom.
Instructional content: Identification of wood
Wood is gotten from Trees and it is formed into planks, plywood, particle board etc. Which are used for construction of houses, furnitures etc.
Class of wood
Wood is classified into hard and soft wood
Properties of wood
(1)wood is a very good insulator.
(2)it has poor resistance to heat and fire.
Identification of metals
Metals can be identified by its properties which are:
(1) Density: weigth of the metal
(2) Colour : apperance of the metal
(3) Fusibility: heating to liquid
(4) Malleability: hammered or bent without breaking etc
Classes of metals
Metals are classified into ferrous and non ferrous metals.
Ferrous metal: are metal that contain iron eg cast iron steel etc.
Non ferrous metal: are new non based metal e.g copper, tin, lead, zinc, gold etc
Alloy metals: are metals which have two or more metals combine together to form one metal. eg brass, bronze, metal bell etc.
Teacher's activity: * The teacher reviews the previous lesson with the student
* Introduces the new topic
* Explain the note
* Give assignment
The teacher ask the students question base on the lesson tought, and the students respond to the question.
Mode of communicaton: voice
Evaluation:mention three properties of wood
Assignment:Explain the properties of metal
Text and references: introduction to technology for basic 8 by