The Following Standards have been created by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) for middle school students.

NCSS Standards Link


Civics: Civics teaches the world of government including different types of government and how political institutions impact our world. Technology can help this by providing students access to government institutions through the web. For example students can visit political parties websites, Congress and the White House online, as well as newspapers from all around world to see how different political actions are received by different cultures. Clips from videos of political debates can be shown, and games like Sim City can help simulate the problems and decisions public officials face.


  • 8.1 Civic Life, Politics and Government

- What are Civic Life, Politics and Government?

  • 8.2 Foundations fo Political Systems

- What are the foundations of the American Political System?

  • 8.3 Principles of Democracy

- How Does the Government Established by the Constitution Embody the Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy?

  • 8.4 Other Nations and World Affairs

- What is the Relationship of the United States to Other Nations and to World Affairs?

  • 8.5 Role of the Citizen

- What are the Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy?


Economics: Economics units strive to show our students how our businesses work, and the importance of the exchange of goods and services. Technology can aid students learning about economics through the use of charts and graphs on spreadsheet programs, finance and accounting programs to help students learn how to manage their resources, as well as business websites that help students weigh products and price.

NCSS Economics Link

  • EC.5-8.1: Scarcity

- Productive resources are limited. Therefore, people can not have all the goods and services they want; as a result, they must choose some things and give up others.

  • EC.5-8.2: Marginal Cost/Benefit

- Effective decision making requires comparing the additional costs of alternatives with the additional benefits. Most choices involve doing a little more or a little less of something: few choices are "all or nothing" decisions.

  • EC.5-8.3: Allocation of Goods and Services

- Different methods can be used to allocate goods and services. People acting individually or collectively through government, must choose which methods to use to allocate different kinds of goods and services.

  • EC.5-8.4: Role of Incentives

- People respond predictably to positive and negative incentives.

  • EC.5-8.5: Gain from Trade

- Voluntary exchange occurs only when all participating parties expect to gain. This is true for trade among individuals or organizations within a nation, and usually among individuals or organizations in different nations.

  • EC.5-8.6: Specialization and Trade

- When individuals, regions, and nations specialize in what they can produce at the lowest cost and then trade with others, both production and consumption increase.

  • EC.5-8.7: Markets -- Price and Quantity Determination

- Markets exist when buyers and sellers interact. This interaction determines market prices and thereby allocates scarce goods and services.

  • EC.5-8.8: Role of Price in Market Systems

- Prices send signals and provide incentives to buyers and sellers. When supply or demand changes, market prices adjust, affecting incentives.

  • EC.5-8.9: Role of Competition

- Competition among sellers lowers costs and prices, and encourages producers to produce more of what consumers are willing and able to buy. Competition among buyers increases prices and allocates goods and services to those people who are willing and able to pay the most for them.

  • EC.5-8.10: Role of Economic Institutions

- Institutions evolve in market economies to help individuals and groups accomplish their goals. Banks, labor unions, corporations, legal systems, and not-for-profit organizations are examples of important institutions. A different kind of institution, clearly defined and enforced property rights, is essential to a market economy.

  • EC.5-8.11: Role of Money

- Money makes it easier to trade, borrow, save, invest, and compare the value of goods and services.

  • EC.5-8.12: Role of Interest Rates

- Interest rates, adjusted for inflation, rise and fall to balance the amount saved with the amount borrowed, which affects the allocation of scarce resources between present and future uses.

  • EC.5-8.13: Role of Resources in Determining Income

- Income for most people is determined by the market value of the productive resources they sell. What workers earn depends, primarily, on the market value of what they produce and how productive they are.

  • EC.5-8.14: Profit and the Entrepreneur

- Entrepreneurs are people who take the risks of organizing productive resources to make goods and services. Profit is an important incentive that leads entrepreneurs to accept the risks of business failure.

  • EC.5-8.15: Growth

- Investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and in the health, education, and training of people can raise future standards of living.

  • EC.5-8.16: Role of Government

- There is an economic role for government in a market economy whenever the benefits of a government policy outweigh its costs. Governments often provide for national defense, address environmental concerns, define and protect property rights, and attempt to make markets more competitive. Most government policies also redistribute income.

  • EC.5-8.17: Using Cost/Benefit Analysis to Evaluate Government Programs

- Costs of government policies sometimes exceed benefits. This may occur because of incentives facing voters, government officials, and government employees, because of actions by special interest groups that can impose costs on the general public, or because social goals other than economic efficiency are being pursued.

  • EC.5-8.18: Macroeconomy-Income/Employment Prices

- A nation's overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by the interaction of spending and production decisions made by all households, firms, government agencies, and others in the economy.

  • EC.5-8.19: Unemployment and Inflation

- Unemployment imposes costs on individuals and nations. Unexpected inflation imposes costs on many people and benefits some others because it arbitrarily redistributes purchasing power. Inflation can reduce the rate of growth of national living standards because individuals and organizations use resources to protect themselves against the uncertainty of future prices.

  • EC.5-8.20: Monetary and Fiscal Policys

- Federal government budgetary policy and the Federal Reserve System's monetary policy influence the overall levels of employment, output, and prices.


Geography: Learning about geography connects to the world of math, science, and social culture. Technology offers new ways to access this information through mapping programs, satellite images of the world with the ability to zoom in and out, as well as online databases including the CIA World Fact Book.

NCSS Geography Link

  • G.K-12.1: The World In Spatial Terms

- Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
- Understand how to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
- Understand how to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.

  • G.K-12.2: Places and Regions

- Understand the physical and human characteristics of places.
- Understand that people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.
- Understand how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.

  • G.K-12.3: Physical Systems

- Understand the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.
- Understand the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.

  • G.K-12.4: Human Studies

- Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.
- Understand the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.
- Understand the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.
- Understand the processes,patterns, and functions of human settlement.
- Understand how the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface.

  • G.K-12.5: Enviornment and Society

- Understand how human actions modify the physical environment.
- Understand how physical systems affect human systems.
- Understand the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.

  • G.K-12.6: The Uses of Geography

- Understand how to apply geography to interpret the past.
- Understand how to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

U.S. HistoryEdit

History: Historical studies looks at the past world and analyzes it for future advice and for an understanding of where we have been. Technology offers a plethora of websites and databases housing historical information, including webquests and virtual environments. Historical games allow students to re-enact making decisions made by famous leaders. Video and media allows students to hear historical speeches from Roosevelt himself or allow students to see the difference between Kennedy and Nixon in making a televised speech.

NCSS U.S. History Link

  • USH.5-12.1 Era 1: Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)
  • USH.5-12.2 Era 2: Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
  • USH.5-12.3 Era 3: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
  • USH.5-12.4 Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
  • USH.5-12.5 Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
  • USH.5-12.6 Era 6: Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)
  • USH.5-12.7 Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)
  • USH.5-12.8 Era 8: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)
  • USH.5-12.9 Era 9: Postwar United States (1945-Early 1970's)
  • USH.5-12.10 Era 10: Contemporary United States (1968- Present)

World HistoryEdit

NCSS World History Link

  • WH.5-12.1 Era 1: The Beginnings of Human Society
  • WH.5-12.2 Era 2: Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples, 4000-1000 BCE
  • WH.5-12.3 Era 3: Classical Traditions, Major Religions, and Giant Empires, 1000 BCE-3000 BCE
  • WH.5-12.4 Era 4: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter, 300-1000 CE
  • WH.5-12.5 Era 5: Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 1000-1500 CE
  • WH.5-12.6 Era 6: The Emergence of the First Global Age, 1450-1770 CE
  • WH.5-12.7 Era 7: An Age of Revolutions, 1750-1914 CE
  • WH.5-12.8 Era 8: A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement, 1900-1945 CE
  • WH.5-12.9 Era 9: The 20th Century Since 1945: Promises and Paradoxes

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.