MAT NO:      2011/3/0008TE

DEPT:             Educational Technology

LEVEL:            500

COURSE:       EDU312


QUESTION1.            Methods of teaching science

2.                        Lesson plan in science

1.     Projects Method: this is the outcome of the pragmatic ideas propagated by Sir John Dewey. “What is to be taught should have a direct relationship with the actual happenings in life” this central idea forms the basis of project method. The principle of correlation has been given a very practical shape through this strategy as it tries to impart education of all the science subjects in an integrating way by correlating them with the real life activities. In order to understand this strategy, one needs to understand the meaning of project. Project according to Stevenson(1922), is a problematic act carried out in completion in a natural setting. Billard (1936) it is a bit of real life that has been imported into school.

In project method, the  project that is to be carried out will be stated by the teacher and its must be related to the instruction t hand. The following steps must be taken into consideration before implementing the project method of teaching science

·        Providing a situation

·        Choosing and purposing of the topic

·        Planning of the project

·        Execution of the project

·        Evaluation of the project

·        Recording of the project.

Advantages of Projects Method

·        It is learner centered

·        Students work on their own

·        There is freedom of working in a social environment

Disadvantages of Projects Method

·        It can be expensive in nature

·        Learner might be at risk depending on the nature of the project

2.     Discovery or Heuristic Method: the term heuristic was derived from the Greek word heurisco meaning to “discover” or “find out”. This method of teaching involves placing the learners as far as possible in the attitude of discover or problem solver, the method involves their finding out instead of being merely told about things. It aims for the development of an attitude of problem olving or discovery among the learners. It wants to make a student an active and independent inquirer and discoverer of knowledge instead of a passive listener and recipient of the knowledge. Instead of getting information students must be engaged in discovering the things or solving the encountered problems with their own independent efforts

Advantages of Discovery or Heuristic Method

·        It gives the student confidence

·        It provides valuable opportunity for proper development of the cognitive domain of the learners.

·        It is learner centered

Disadvantages of Discovery or Heuristic Method

·        It requires proper patience

·        It cannot cater for a large class properly

·        It is very tedious

Other Methods of teaching science includes

ü Project Method

ü Problem Solving Method

ü Question and Answering Method

ü Role-Play Method

ü Case-Study Method

ü Lecture Method

ü Group Discussion Method









PERIOD:  (1.40 -2.20 p.m)

DATE: 7/6/2014

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to

1.     Define Habitat

2.     Mention 2 types of habitat

3.     Factors in a habitat

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students have being taught about living things in the previous class.

PRESENTATION: the teacher presents the lesson by the following step;

INTRODUCTION: the teacher introduces his lesson by asking questions to confirm the level of students’ knowledge of the previous lesson and he introduces his new topic

STEP I: the teacher defines habitat

STEP II: the teacher Mention 2 types of habitat

STEP III: the teacher gives the factors in an habitat

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: chalkboard and charts


Habitat is the specific place where plants and animals live. The animals and plants that live in a habitat are called habitants.

There are three major types of habitats;

a.     Aquatic habitat: this means a place in water where fish and animals live. Depending on the concentration of salt in the water

b.     Terrestrial habitats: it refers to land places where animals that can live on land.  Examples of its habitants include mammals, worms,’ reptiles, insects, birds.

c.      Arboreal habitat: this is the place above the ground where animals that live on trees, or in the air, can survive. Example of arboreal habitants are woodpecker, weaverbirds, butterfly, bats e.t.c

Factors in a Habitat

There are two factors to be considered in any habitat they are

a.     Biotic factor : these refer to those living components in the habitat

b.     Abiotic factor: these refers to those non-living thing in the habitat.

CLASS ACTIVITY: students and the teacher participated in class discussion.


1.     What is habitat

2.     What is habitant

3.     What are the factors in a habitat

SUMMARY: the teacher summarizes the lesson by going through the main points of the lesson again

CONCLUSION: the teacher concludes the lesson and gives note of lesson to the students.

ASSIGNMENT: give 5 habitant in the 3 habitat


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