FANDOM


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S/N

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REAL MATERIAL

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IMPROVISED MATERIAL

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1.

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Spatula

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spoon

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2.

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Funnel

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Cut head of plastic bottle water

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Plane mirror

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Decorating mirror

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Biro and ink        

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Feather and ink

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Rain coat

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Sugar latex(nylon)

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Bottle opener

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spoon

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Electric fan

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Hand fan

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Pressing iron

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Folding cloth under the pillow or charcoal iron

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Sewing machine

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Thread pin

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Electricity

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Car battery

 


LESSON PLAN

SCHOOL: Goodluck comprehensive college

DATE:2ndJune 2014

SUBJECT: Agricultural Science

TOPIC:IRRIGATION

TIME:2:00-2:40pm

DURATION:40 minutes

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVE: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:-

1.define irrigation

2.states types of irrigation

3.describe types of irrigation

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR: students are asked to explain effects of lack of rain which they did in the previous  class.

TEACHING METHODS: Questioning and discussion method

PRESENTATION

STEP 1:definition of irrigation

Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost,suppressing weed growth in grain fieldsand preventing soil consolidation .In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.

STEP 2:types of irrigation

1 Surface irrigation 2 Localized irrigation 2.1 Drip, or trickle irrigation 3 Sprinkler irrigation 3.1 Center pivot irrigation 3.2 Lateral move (Side roll, Wheel line) irrigation 4 Sub-irrigation 5 Manual irrigation using buckets or watering cans

STEP 3:description of irrigations

Surface irrigation In surface irrigation systems water is moving over the land by simple gravity flow in order to wet it and to infiltrate into the soil. They can be subdivided into furrow, border strip or basin irrigation. Localized irrigation Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Drip irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to this category of irrigation methods. Sprinkler irrigation In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. Guns are similar to rotors, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:charts,flat pictures,flash cards and posters

SUMMARY:

ASSIGNMENT: Students should go and make researches on the reasons for irrigation

EVALUATION:quizzes,and assignment

REFERENCES: ·  The CIA World Factbook, retrieved 2011-10-30

·  Frenken, K. (2005). "Irrigation in Africa in figures – AQUASTAT Survey – 2005" (PDF). Water Report 29. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 92-5-105414-2. Retrieved 2007-03-14.

·  Provenzano, Giuseppe (2007). "Using HYDRUS-2D Simulation Model to Evaluate Wetted Soil Volume in Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems". J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 133 (4): 342–350. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2007)133:4(342).

·  Mader, Shelli (May 25, 2010). "Center pivot irrigation revolutionizes agriculture". The Fence Post Magazine. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

·  "Polyester ropes natural irrigation technique". Entheogen.com. Retrieved 2012-06-19.

METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE


Demonstrating

Demonstrating is the process of teaching through examples or experiments. For example, a science teacher may teach an idea by performing an experiment for students. A demonstration may be used to prove a fact through a combination of visual evidence and associated reasoning. Demonstrations are similar to written storytelling and examples in that they allow students to personally relate to the presented information. Memorization of a list of facts is a detached and impersonal experience, whereas the same information, conveyed through demonstration, becomes personally relatable. Demonstrations help to raise student interest and reinforce memory retention because they provide connections between facts and real-world applications of those facts.

You should consider a number of issues when planning a demonstration (O'Brien, 1990):

    What concepts do you want the demonstration to illustrate?

·             Which of the many demonstrations on the selected topic will generate the greatest enhancement in student learning? Where in the class would it be most effective?

·         What prior knowledge should be reviewed before the demonstration?

·         What design would be most effective, given the materials at hand and the target audience?

·         Which steps in the demonstration procedure should be carried out ahead of time?

·         What questions will be appropriate to motivate and direct student observation and thought processes before, during, and after the demonstration?

·         What follow-up questions can be used to test and stretch students' understanding of the new concept?

Experiential learning

 Is the process of making meaning from direct experience, i.e., "learning from experience.The experience can be staged or left open. Aristotle once said, "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them” David A. Kolb helped to popularize the idea of experiential learning drawing heavily on the work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget. His work on experiential learning has contributed greatly to expanding the philosophy of experiential education.

The case method

 Is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case, putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem (Hammond 1976). In a case method classroom, both the instructor and the student must be active in different ways. Each is dependent on the other to bring about teaching and learning



EXPERIMENTATION

It is hard to imagine learning to do science, or learning about science, without doing laboratory or field work. Experimentation underlies all scientific knowledge and understanding. Laboratories are wonderful settings for teaching and learning science. They provide students with opportunities to think about, discuss, and solve real problems. Experiments offer a peculiar opportunity in science for collecting exact information. The science teacher should see to it that every experiment contributes to the solution of a
problem.

The Small Group Plan

 In this plan of teaching the teacher opens up a new area of investigation, and the class then or- ganizes into small groups to investigate the various problems which have been defined. Each group selects a group leader who becomes responsible to the teacher for the work of the

Group. The various groups then carry on whatever activities seem valuable for the solution of the problem at hand. From Time to time the class is assembled by the teacher for general Instructions or for hearing progress reports from the various Groups. In the use of this plan, basic readings on the entire Unit are generally required of all pupils. At the close of the Unit the class assembles to hear the group reports, see important demonstrations, moving pictures, slides, etc., and to take part in discussion and organization of the materials.

 

PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUES. 
 
 Students learn problem-solving techniques by solving problems which are both interesting and worth-while for them. If students are to have genuine interest in the solution of problems they should have some opportunity to share in the stating of the problems within a given area of adjustment and in planning their solution. The setting of the problems for study over a given period is very vital to the success of the learning and should therefore be planned carefully by the teacher. A cooperative approach may be used in which the teacher opens up the field for investigation, draws upon the experiences of pupils to suggest places where problems might exist, and then encourages them to state the problems in their own words. 
 

 

AREO SUNDAY DAMILOLA

2011/01/0011TE

EDU TECH

YEAR THREE



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