NAME: AJOSE KEHINDE MAUMO
MATRIC NO: 2011/1/0002CE
YEAR OF STUDY: 300
TEACHING METHODS ON TEACHING SCIENCE
1. Demonstration method
2 .Discussion method
3 .Questioning method
4 .Field trip method
5 .Peer tutoring method
DEMONSTRATION METHOD: It is the best way of introducing skills to learners in class’ teacher can use the demonstration method to teach skills. When doing this he demonstrates step by step procedure involved, using the exact physical procedures involved, while demonstrating he explain the reason for and significance of each step.
This method is recommended for teaching science because it covers all necessary steps in an effective learning order. These steps are demonstration, repetition, and performance.
DISCUSSION METHOD: in this method both teachers and learner engage in exchange of ideas in the teaching learning process. It can be inform of symposium. Seminars or just a round table exchange of information. It is effective in getting learners to think contractively while interacting with the rest of the group. It can be conducted in small group or large group. Basic to a good discussion is a problem which is clearly defined.
To conduct a class discussion, the student must make more extensive and more thorough preparations than you will prepare for a lecture. To receive full benefits from tee discussion, the learners must have previous familiarity with the subject matter.
QUESTIONING METHOD: As the name implies, the teacher using this method ask learners sequence of suitable question with the intent of leading the learner to draw a logical conclusion or generalization. This obviously implies that the learners have previously had some acquaintance with the topic on which the question are being asked. The teacher thus uses the question to modifier expand the learners response for better learning, he ask so that to the limitation or inadequacies of the statement made earlier.
From this point, the teacher builds up more questions which lead the learners to generalization.
FIELD TRIP: is one the most popular education method that has surfaced in past two decades. It is a learning activity that takes place outside the classroom for the purpose of making relevant observation and gathering information. It affords the learner opportunities to gain first hand experience trough observing, collecting, classifying, studying and manipulating objects.
PEER TUTORING METHOD: Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that consists of learner partnership linking high achieving learners with lower achieving learners or those with comparable achievement. It is a systematic peer meditated teaching strategy.
There two major peer tutoring strategies: these are cross age tutoring and Reciprocal peer tutoring.
Cross age tutoring: is a peer tutoring approach that joins learners of different age with older learners assuming the role of tutor and younger learner assuming the role of learners.
Reciprocal peer tutoring: is a collaborative learning strategy in which learner alternate between the role or tutor and learners. It has a structured format where learners prompt, teach, monitor, evaluate and encourage each other. The alternating structure creates a sense of interdependence and maximize learning and motivation.
LESSON PLAN IN TEACHING SCIENCE
NAME: AJOSE KEHINDE MAUMO
MATRICULATION NUMBER: 2011/1/0002CE
YEAR OF STRUDY/LEVEL: 300
SCHOOL: AOCOED INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, IJANKIN LAGOS STATE.
CLASS: SS I
DATE: 16TH JUNE, 2014
DURATION: 40 MINUTES
TOPIC: STATE OF MATTER
AVERAGE AGE OF LEARNERS: 14 YEARS
BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:
a. List the three state of matter
b. Give examples of each state of matter
c. Mention the changes matter undergo and give example for each change.
ENTRY BEHAVIOUR: The students have been taught introduction to chemistry.
INSTRUTIONAL MATERIALS: the teacher brings specimen to illustrate the state of matter to the students to see e.g. stone, water, perfume.
INTRODUCTION: The teacher asks the students to define matter and give examples of things in the environment that is made up of matter.
CONTENT: STATE OF MATTER
Matter can exist in three physical states solid
Solid, liquid and gas. A solid has a definite volume and shape; a liquid has no definite volume and shape (but it fills the entire container.)
Matter can change from one state to another. The most common example of a substance undergoing a change of state is water.
Generally, a given substance changes it state when it’s heated or cooled. For example candle wax and margarine liquefy on warming and solidify on cooling.
Properties of matter
Substance can be identified by the characteristics they possess. These characteristics are called properties
Physical properties are properties associated with physical changes. Common physical properties of substance include boiling and melting point density hardness, malleability crystalline form as while as properties which may be detected by the senses such as colour odour and taste
Chemical properties are those properties which are involve when matter undergoes a change to form a new substance. The rusting of iron is a chemical properties of iron since a new substance iron rust is formed
Physical and chemical changes
Physical change is one in which is easily reversed and in which no new substance are formed e.g. Dissolution of common salt in water.
Salt + water-salt solution
Salt solution-salt +water
A few other examples of physical changes are as follows
A change in state of matter such as melting point of solid to liquid, the freezing of liquid.
The separation of mixtures by evaporation, distillation, fractional distillation and sublimation.
A chemical change is one in which is not easily reversed and in which no new substance are formed.
More examples of chemical examples are as follows:
The dissolution 0of metal and limestone in acid
The rusting of iron
The addiction of water to quicklime
Fermentation and decay of substance
Physical changes chemical changes
It is easily reversible It is not easily reversible
No new substance is formed New substance is formed.
There is no change in mass. There is change in mass.
It does not involve any great heat there is a great change in heat.
Step 1: The teachers explain the meaning of the state of matter.
Step 2: The teacher cities the three different states in which matter exist with examples
Step 3: the teacher explains how matter is been transformed from one state to other and the processes involved.
Step4: The teachers ask the student to cite example of substances that undergo changes (physical and chemical changes).
EVALUATION: The teacher asks the students the following questions.
a. What are the states of matter?
b. List the different states of matter.
c. Briefly explain how water undergoes change in state and show the process involved.
d. List matter that undergo physical and chemical change
SUMMARY: The teacher goes over the lesson again to make it clearer to the students.
ASSIGNMENT: The students are to read further on classification of matter and the method of separating mixtures
REFERENCE: OSAI YAW (2008).NEW SCHOOL CHEMISTRY FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, STATE OF MATTER, PAGE 11 -13
3. IMPROVISATION OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS IN CLASSROOM TEACHING.
Common materials such as
'1. 'Pharmaceutical jars
'2. 'Cloths peg
'3. 'Widen ball
'4. 'Metal foil
'5. 'Wire spring
'7. 'Common salt
'8. 'Old coins
'10. 'Broken u tube